By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Eric P. Purdy
Covers systemic health conditions probably to impact ophthalmic sufferers, corresponding to infectious, metabolic, neurologic and cardiovascular ailments; melanoma; and rheumatic and endocrine problems. incorporates a dialogue of preventive drugs and clinical emergencies, geriatrics and facts. Ophthalmic concerns are highlighted all through. comprises references and tables directory the names, symptoms and unwanted effects of antibiotic, antihypertensive and anticancer drugs.
Upon of entirety of part 1, readers may be capable to:
Describe the ophthalmic manifestations of significant systemic diseases
Summarize the foremost sickness strategies affecting lots of the grownup inhabitants, and in short clarify how preventive measures might decrease the morbidity and mortality they cause
List many of the elements linked to a patient's compliance or noncompliance with scientific regimens
Read Online or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 1: Update on General Medicine PDF
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Extra resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 1: Update on General Medicine
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus is a ubiquitous human virus: 50% of adults in developed countries harbor antibodies, which are usually acquired during the first 5 years oflife. The virus can be isolated from all body fluids, even in the presence of circulating neutralizing antibody, for up to several years after infection. Serologic and PCR testing are available to assist in the diagnosis of CMV infection. Presence of the pp65 antigen, as detected by PCR, indicates the need for preemptive therapy against CMV.
Primary infection is usually subclinical, but in some patients cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present. The ocular manifestations include uveitis and chorioretinitis with macular scarring. The clinical picture and histopathology of toxoplasmosis are a reflection of the immune response, which includes an early humoral response, followed by the cellular response, which varies from low-grade mononuclear infiltrate to total tissue destruction. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation of latent disease can cause life-threatening encephalitis.
Treatment of active infection involves use of 2 or 3 drugs because of the emergence of resistance and of delay in culture susceptibility studies. Standard regimens employ multiple drugs for 18-24 months, but with the addition of newer agents, treatment for 6-9 months has been found equally effective. Drugs currently used include isoniazid, rifampin, rifabutin, ethambutol, streptomycin, pyrazinamide, aminosalicylic acid, ethionamide, and cycloserine. All of the agents currently used have toxic side effects, especially hepatic and neurologic, which should be carefully monitored during the course of therapy.