By Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, Janos
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Additional resources for Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism
Diet is not limiting with respect to protein or energy. Energetic Efficiency The food that provides the energy does so by providing fuel for oxidation to provide heat, ATP, CO2, and water. The heat produced through this oxidation is needed to keep the body warm, but it is also a measure of the energy need. That is, the heat produced (and that can be measured) is the energy that is lost from the body and must be replaced. Of the inherent energy of palmitate, 36% is trapped by the body when this fuel is used, and 64% is released as heat (see discussion above).
Cahill60 estimated that a “normal” 70-kg man required about 2000 kcal (8368 kJ) per day to maintain his body and that he had sufficient fuel stores to sustain life for about 80 d. 6, adapted from Cahill’s paper, most of the energy comes from the lipid stored in the adipose tissue. While Cahill and others evaluated the energy losses from the whole animal, interorgan fuel fluxes have been studied as well. 6 illustrates these fluxes during the first 24 h of starvation. Lipids, primarily triacylglycerols, are hydrolyzed to fatty acids and glycerol through the action of hormone-sensitive lipase.
The latter process would only use a very small number of these carbon skeletons. 78 moles glucose + 3 moles palmitate + 10 moles ATP → 1 mole tripalmitin 12 Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism Protein synthesis is likewise very expensive energetically. Each amino acid that is incorporated into a polypeptide chain requires an ATP for its activation. In a protein containing many hundred amino acids, the requirement for ATP is enormous. ATP is also required for the synthesis of the mRNA coded for the protein being synthesized.