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Additional resources for Applied Linguistics, Volum1 , Issue 1, 1980

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However, one might wish to make more use of performance tests (tasks) informally in the classroom and perhaps at stages other than the initial ones in second language study so as not to risk frustrating the beginner (cf. 1). g. Oller 1976), it seems that discrete­ point tests will also be useful in our proposed communicative approach. This is because such tests may be more effective than integrative tests in making the learner aware of and in assessing the learner's control of the separate com- MICHAEL CANALE AND MERRILL SWAIN 35 ponents and elements of communicative competence.

Cited by Diller as embodiments of rationalist theory have been such pedagogical concepts, approaches, and methodologies as The Silent Way of Gattegno, the ' non-silent way' of Winitz and Reeds, other versions of the Direct Method, Community Language Learning, Total Physical Response, and so on. Although they all differ strikingly in many ways, two things that they ap­ parently have in common are, according to their own claims, ( I ) a high degree of success in teaching language, and (2) a recognition of the importance of grammar.

MICHAEL CANALE AND M E R R I L L SWAIN 47 Van der Geest, T. 1978. 'Communicative analysis system' . Paper read at the 5th AILA Congress, Montreal, August. Van Ek, J . A. 1 976. Significance of the threshold level in the early teaching of modern languages. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Walters, J . 1 978. 'Social factors in the acquisition of a second language' . Paper read at the 5th AILA Congress, Montreal, August. Widdowson, H. G. 1 97 1 . 'The teaching of rhetoric to students of science and technology' .

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