By Joseph L. Awange
Global Navigation satellite tv for pc structures (GNSS) are revolutionizing the area in a manner their unique builders by no means envisaged. From being army “war” instruments, GNSS satellites are swiftly changing into “peace” instruments that play a in all probability serious position in allowing altering environmental phenomenon that don't enable direct measurements to be remotely saw through their all-weather, hugely actual and always updatable positional time sequence. this is often glaring, for instance, of their use in rising environmental tracking tools which are thought of during this booklet. those comprise: GPS-based radio telemetry, that's bettering ecological and conservation tracking via extra adequately mapping animal events, their behaviours, and their effect at the setting; GNSS-meteorology, that's contributing to climate and weather switch reviews; GNSS-remote sensing, which, for instance, permits the fast tracking of adjustments in clean water assets and cryosphere; Geosensor community techniques, that are incomes an important function in catastrophe reaction administration; Epidemiology, for enhanced potency in monitoring and learning the unfold of infectious ailments and weather swap results on vector-borne illnesses; and Economics, to supply facts for the econometric modelling of informal impression of regulations. In Environmental effect Assessments (EIA), Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA), and Sustainability Assessments (SA), GNSS, including different spaced-based distant sensing ideas, are rising, not just as smooth instruments that attach the developers to the community, but in addition offer details that help Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) tools, which tell choice making and coverage formulations.
By bringing the 2 fields of geodesy (the dad or mum of GNSS expertise) and environmental studies (potential clients of this technology), this booklet provides the recommendations of GNSS in a simplified manner which can, at the one hand, be understood and utilised by means of environmentalists, whereas at the different, outlines its strength functions to environmental tracking and administration for these engaged extra with its know-how, which with a bit of luck will extra energise the already leading edge learn that's being performed. finally, this ebook is such a lot suitable to the entire pros whose paintings is expounded to the surroundings corresponding to hydrologists, meteorologists, epidemiologists, economist, and engineers, to call only a few.
A finished but candid and compelling presentation of world Navigation satellite tv for pc platforms and its software to environmental tracking and a bunch of different socio-economic actions. this is often a vital and new floor breaking interpreting for all expert practitioners or even teachers looking to examine and get entangled in utilizing international Navigation satellite tv for pc platforms in various fields starting from environmental tracking to monetary actions equivalent to tracking climate and weather to be able to layout crop failure insurance.
Nathaniel O. Agola, Professor of commercial and fiscal Economics, Ritsumeikan collage, Japan
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Additional info for Environmental Monitoring using GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite Systems
4. Cheaper: Although the initial expense and maintenance of the satellites and ground support are very high, from the users’ point of view, they are cheaper as compared to other terrestrial observation techniques such as photogrammetry or Very Long Baseline Interferommetry (VLBI) (Takahashi et al. 2000). GNSS are economical due to the fact that only a few operators are needed to operate the receivers and process data. Less time is therefore required to undertake a GNSS survey to obtain a solution.
1007/978-3-540-88256-5_2, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 15 16 Fig. 1 Use of GNSS to position oneself. In case one is in deep sea or desert and wants to know his or her position, pressing a button on a hand-held GNSS receiver will provide the position 2 Modernization of GNSS Lost inside deep sea? Lost in the Saharan desert? Where am I and where am I going? Traditional maps Hand held GPS geographical longitude and latitude (φ, λ). One then needs to locate these values on a given map or press a button to send his/her position as a short message service (sms) on a mobile phone as is the case for search and rescue missions.
As seen in Fig. 5, the complete number of cycles plus a fractional portion (phase) are used in the case of GPS carrier-phase pseudorange measurements from the satellites to the receiver. 3 GPS Observation Principles 31 Fig. 5 Carrier-phase pseudorange measurement. At the time the receiver is switched on, the complete number of cycle N is unknown, and what the receiver measures is the fractional phase φ known at the time the receiver is switched on, there exists an unknown integer ambiguity N . The accurate determination of this integer ambiguity underpins the accuracy of the final position derived from the carrier-phase measurements.